Welsh Words – Place Names

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Welsh – English

aber – estuary, river mouth
afon – river
bach – small, little
ban – peak, crest
blaen – head, end, source
bont – bridge
bryn – hill
bwlch – pass
caer – fort, stronghold
carreg – stone, rock
cartref – home
castell – castle
cefn – ridge
clawdd – hedge, ditch, dyke
coch – red
coed – wood
cors – bog
craig – rock
crib – crest, summit, ridge
cwm – valley
cymer – meeting of rivers
dinas – fort, city
du, ddu – black, dirty
dyffryn – valley
eglwys – church
fach – small, little
fan – peak, crest
fawr – great, big
fferm – farm
ffin – boundary
foel – bare hill
fynydd – mountain
gaer – fort, stronghold
glyn – glen
goch – red
graig – rock
gwaun – moor, mountain pasture
gwlad – country
gwyn – white
hafod – summer dwelling
hendre – winter dwelling, home
heol – road
llan – church, enclosure, holy place of
llwyn – grove, bush
llyn – lake
llys – hall, court
maen – stone
mawr – fawr great, big
merthyr – marty
moel – foel bare hill
mynydd – mountain
nant – brook
pant – hollow, valley
pen – head, top, end
pentre – village, homestead
plas – hall, mansion
pont – bridge
rheilffordd – railway
sarn – causeway, old road
sir – county or shire
tre, tref – hamlet, home, town
ty – house
uchaf – upper, higher, highest
waen – moor, mountain pasture
ynys – island
ystrad – valley floor
ystryd – street

English – Welsh

bare hill – moel, foel
black, dirty – du, ddu
bog – cors
boundary – ffin
bridge – bont
brook – nant
castle – castell
causeway, old road – sarn
church – eglwys
church, holy place – llan
country – gwlad
county or shire – sir
crest, summit, ridge – crib
farm – fferm
fort, city – dinas
fort, stronghold – caer, gaer
glen – glyn
great, big – fawr, mawr
grove, bush – llwyn
hall, court – llys
hall, mansion – plas
hamlet, town – tre, tref
head, end, source – blaen
head, top, end – pen
hedge, ditch, dyke – clawdd
hill – bryn
hollow, valley – pant
home – cartref
house – ty
island – ynys
lake – llyn
martyr – merthyr
meeting of rivers – cymer
moor, high pasture – gwaun, waen
mountain – fynydd, mynydd
pass – bwlch
peak, crest – ban, fan
railway – rheilffordd
red – coch, goch
ridge – cefn
river – afon
river mouth – aber
road – heol
rock – craig, graig
small, little – bach, fach
stone, rock – carreg, maen
street – ystryd
summer dwelling – hafod
upper, higher, highest – uchaf
valley – cwm, dyffryn
valley floor – ystrad
village, homestead – pentre
white – gwyn
winter dwelling, home – hendre
wood – coed