Henry Morton Stanley
Sir Henry Morton Stanley (also known as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks) in Congo), born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 � May 10, 1904), was a 19th-century Welsh-born American journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone.
He was born in Denbigh, Denbighshire, Wales; his parents were unmarried, and he was brought up in a workhouse (now HM Stanley Hospital, St Asaph). He later worked his passage to the United States on a ship, and upon arriving in New Orleans, he became friendly with a wealthy trader named Stanley, whose name he later assumed.
After military service with both sides in the American Civil War, Stanley was recruited in 1867 by Colonel Samuel Forster Tappan (a one-time journalist) of the Indian Peace Commission to serve as a correspondent to cover the work of the Commission for several newspapers. Stanley was soon retained exclusively by James Gordon Bennett (1795-1872), founder of the New York Herald. This early period of his professional life is described in Volume I of his book "My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia" (1895). He became one of the Herald's overseas correspondents and in 1869 was instructed by Bennett's son to find the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone, who was known to be in Africa but had not been heard from for some time. According to Stanley's no doubt romanticised account, he asked James Gordon Bennett, Jr. (1841-1918), who had succeeded to the paper's management at his father's retirement in 1867, how much he could spend. The reply was "Draw �1,000 now, and when you have gone through that, draw another �1,000, and when that is spent, draw another �1,000, and when you have finished that, draw another �1,000, and so on � BUT FIND LIVINGSTONE!"
Stanley traveled to Zanzibar and outfitted an expedition with the best of everything, requiring no less than 200 porters. He located Livingstone on November 10, 1871, in Ujiji near Lake Tanganyika in present-day Tanzania, and famously greeted him (at least according to his own journal) by saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" (which was tongue-in-cheek because Livingstone was the only white person for hundreds of miles). Stanley joined him in exploring the region, establishing for certain that there was no connection between Lake Tanganyika and the river Nile. On his return, he wrote a book about his experiences. The New-York Herald, in partnership with Britain's Daily Telegraph, then financed him on another expedition to the African continent, one of his achievements being to solve the last great mystery of African exploration by tracing the course of the river Congo to the sea.
Controversy followed Stanley for most of his life. In later years he spent much energy defending himself against charges that his African expeditions had been marked by callous violence and brutality. Despite Stanley's efforts, the facts gradually emerged: his opinion was that "the savage only respects force, power, boldness, and decision." Stanley would eventually be held responsible for a number of deaths and was indirectly responsible for helping establish the rule of King L�opold over the Congo Free State.
In 1886, Stanley led the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to "rescue" Emin Pasha, the governor of Equatoria in the southern Sudan. After immense hardships and great loss of life, Stanley met Emin in 1888, discovered the Ruwenzori Range and Lake Edward, and emerged from the interior with Emin and his surviving followers at the end of 1890.
On his return to Europe, he married Welsh artist Dorothy Tennant, and entered Parliament as Unionist member for the London Borough of Lambeth, serving from 1895 to 1900. He died in London on May 10, 1904. His grave, in the graveyard of St. Michael's Church in Pirbright, Surrey, is marked by a large piece of granite.