Llanvihangel-Ar-Arth or Yeroth (Llan-Fihangel-Ar-Arth) - From 'A Topographical Dictionary of Wales' (1849)
LLANVIHANGEL-AR-ARTH or YEROTH (LLAN-FIHANGEL-AR-ARTH), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Higher division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 12 miles (N. by E.) from Carmarthen; containing 1993 inhabitants. According to Giraldus Cambrensis, this place was the scene of an obstinate battle between Hywel and Grufydd ab Llewelyn, in the year 1039, when the former, who had brought his wife to the field to be a spectator of his anticipated triumph, was defeated by the latter, and being pursued, was taken prisoner with his wife, and detained in the power of Grufydd. Rhŷs ab Grufydd, according to the same historian, held an interview here with Henry II., in 1162, when he made his formal submission to the authority of that monarch. The parish is situated on the river Teivy, over which the turnpike-road between Carmarthen and Aberystwith is continued by a handsome stone bridge; it extends for nearly eight miles in length from north to south, and seven miles in breadth from east to west, comprising 17,020 acres. The surrounding scenery is diversified, in some parts highly picturesque; and the soil, though varying in different parts, is in general fertile. The village, in addition to its situation on the thoroughfare leading from Carmarthen to Aberystwith, is intersected by the turnpike-road from the former town to Lampeter. Fairs are annually held on the 12th of May and the 10th of October.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £6. 6. 8., endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the alternate patronage of W. Lewes, and J. E. Lloyd, Esqrs., the impropriators: the tithes have been commuted for £508, of which £430 are payable to the impropriators, and £78 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of eighty-five acres, valued at £60 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is situated on an eminence on the southern bank of the Teivy, commanding an extensive and pleasing view of the river and the adjacent country; in the churchyard is a monumental stone, with the inscription Hic Jacet Ulcacinus Filius Senomacili. The chapel of Pencader has been in ruins for about a century, but the cemetery is still entire. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Particular Baptists. A British school was established at Pencader in the year 1846, and the parish contains five Sunday schools, four of them in connexion with the dissenters. Near the village are the remains of an ancient encampment, probably thrown up by Hywel, in his encounter with Llewelyn, in 1039; and on the banks of the Teivy, near the boundary of Llanllwny parish, is a lofty embankment, the history of which is unknown. There are also three tumuli within the parish, but no particulars respecting them are upon record.