Penmachno (Pen-Machno) - From 'A Topographical Dictionary of Wales' (1849)
PENMACHNO (PEN-MACHNO), a parish, in the union of Llanrwst, hundred of Nantconway, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 9 miles (S.) from Llanrwst; containing 1274 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation near the source of the river Machno, which rises to the south-west of it, and, flowing through the parish in a north-eastern direction, falls into the Conway. The latter river, also, has its source in a fine lake within the limits of Penmachno, and forms a boundary on the east and north, separating the parish from the county of Denbigh. The surface is mountainous, and the district abounds with mineral wealth; the soil in the valleys is fertile, and the lower lands, which are watered by the Machno and other streams descending from the hills, are productive, and in a good state of cultivation. The area of the parish is 13,000 acres. It is distinguished for some fine mountain scenery, and the views from the higher grounds extend over a tract of country abounding with picturesque beauty. Copper and lead are supposed to be contained in the mountainous parts of the parish; and, in 1784, a lease of the minerals within the common called Llêchwedd Oernant was granted by the crown to Mrs. Anne Robinson, for thirty-one years, at a rent of £1. 6. 8., and 15s. per ton for lead-ore, 8s. per ton for calamine, and onetenth part of the copper and other minerals. Many of the inhabitants are quarrymen. Fairs are held on April 17th, August 18th, and October 20th.
The living is a perpetual curacy, rated in the king's books at £9. 10., and endowed with £200 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £92; patron and impropriator, Sir R. W. Vaughan, Bart. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £153. The church, dedicated to St. Tyddud, is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. In the parish are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. There is a Church day school, endowed with £10 per annum, as mentioned below; also a day school unconnected with any particular religious body; and four Sunday schools, connected with the dissenters. Richard Anwyll, in 1681, bequeathed £200 for the use of the poor; Maurice Hughes, in 1723, devised £70 for the same purpose; and David Price, in 1728, charged his estate with a rent-charge of 20s. for their benefit. But the principal benefactor of the parish was Roderick Lloyd, of Middlesex, Esq., who, in 1729, left £10 per annum chargeable on the tithes, for the minister for the time being, in consideration of his teaching the children of the poor gratis to read and write English: this sum is paid to the master of the above Church school, the pupils of which pay certain fees. He further devised some lands and tenements situate in the parish of Llanycil, amounting to 135 acres, and now yielding a rent of £60, for the erection and endowment of an almshouse for five aged men and the same number of women. The almshouse is situated about a quarter of a mile from the church, and is a substantial building of ten apartments, with a piece of ground behind for the general use of the inmates, who receive 10s. a month each. The same benevolent individual devised £100, to be laid out in the purchase of land, the rent to be appropriated to supplying a certain quantity of bread to the poor every Sunday, and meat on Christmas-eve; and with this sum, and the proceeds of Anwyll's and Hughes' bequests, other premises and lands were bought at Llanycil, now worth £40 per annum, which is partly distributed in bread every Sunday, in flannel and linen occasionally, and in small amounts at Christmas and Easter. From the same fund another small purchase was made of two houses and a few acres of ground; one of the tenements is occupied by a pauper put in by the parish, and the rent of the remainder is given to the deserving poor.